Using graphs as multimodal texts

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Did you know that graphs that present data in multiple forms can be fantastic reading and viewing tools to practice interpretation skills, inference, comparisons, and generalizing? I have discovered that when information about different topics is presented in graphs, students take less time decoding the information they have to respond.

Presenting information in this manner also creates a context that produces opportunities to ask a wide variety of factual questions and give students the opportunity to practice context-relevant vocabulary.

Possibly, the aspect that I appreciate most is the opportunity students have to consume and interact with information other than in a written text. The video below presents a few ways in which this strategy can be conducted.

If you would like to try it out, you can download the graphs used in the video (PPT) and modify them depending on the language you teach.

Graphs as Multimodal Texts

Here is an example of how this strategy may work. The image is courtesy of Monia Voegelin.

Screenshot 2020-04-13 at 1.47.35 PM

Posted in Concept-Based Foreign Language Instruction, Concept-Based Teaching and Learning, Differentiation, Inquiry, Multimodal texts, Resources | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

An inquiry into collaboration and gratitude  

J. Rafael Angel Ampers& Consulting Purpose

Educators who know me know that I am possible the 2nd most people-person that exists, and that I am like humidity- I like to be present in every possible space. I always do this with a positive attitude and with a smile on my face. However, I must admit that at the beginning of our Remote learning experience, despite the confidence I had in the strategy we had designed at my current school, I was feeling slightly useless.

In the same way that it’s not recommendable to recreate the physical classroom in a virtual space, attempting to serve my colleagues as I normally do would be equally ineffective. It took me a few days of reflection to gain focus again. The following questions guided me to arrive where I am now:

  • What is the essence of my purpose as a teammate?
  • How can I keep and continue nurturing the relationships I have with my teammates?
  • What help do I need to keep a happy and support-oriented attitude instead of letting the things I can’t control affect me?

As soon as I eliminated all distractions in my brainstorming/reflection and allowed these three questions to settle in my mind, I started to notice that relationships, presence, and gratitude could be meaningful dispositions that could support me be a helpful teammate.

With a regained, energized spirit, I asked my colleagues to invite me to see their classes in order for me to see them and hear them. Although I was feeling happy about the opportunity to re-connect, writing that line made me realize how our human interaction has been reduced to two senses: seeing and hearing, and I even imagined what kind of learning magic could be created in the absence of the other senses- that is for another reflection.

After a couple of weeks of accepting invitations, visiting my colleagues learning environments, and having the opportunity to see them and hear them I can summarize what is making sense to me in my role as a coordinator and pedagogical leader in 3 ideas:

  • Relationships before supervision
  • Presence before observation
  • Gratitude before feedback

After each class I visit, I write a gratitude note to my colleagues. While this will never replace our ‘complete’ human interactions, it is a medium for me to attempt to show that I am present, that I value our relationships, and that I am thankful for leaning with them in the present.

We have to find ways to humanize the remote learning scenario for our learners, but we also have to find a way to stimulate our emotions and keep putting wood into the fire of the relationships we have with our colleagues, because we started that fire (those relationships), and it’s our responsibility to keep it alive.

I do not think we start relationships to finish them, do we?

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An inquiry into Structure and Space

J Rafael Angel Ampers& Consulting Group elearning

My interest in learning spaces is not new. Between 2011 and 2015, I designed an interactive learning platform for students of Spanish as an additional or mother tongue, which does not exist anymore, but I am happy I recorded the experience in an old blog post. Oh, how I value documenting my ideas!

This experience taught me that creating a virtual learning space is not using X, Y, and Z because they are great tools, but ensuring that the space we devise provides students with a learning experience that does not look like a list of submissions, and to have a dedicated space whether they can interact and to respond and learn from what their classmates are saying. For this reason, as I reflect on the brainstorming sessions with my pedagogical leadership team, I am happy that our efforts to produce a clean, visually appealing, comprehensive and, above all, user friendly has paid off.

Since the beginning of our remote learning strategy, we have been emphatical about the importance of keeping students at the center of the experience, because if the first days they spent time figuring out how to use our learning space, stress and frustration may define the beginning of our experience. We did not want that. We wanted learning and well-being to be the focus and the areas that we would need to adjust as we improved our model.

In a past blogpost, I contextualized what we wanted to achieve with the design of our virtual learning environment, which includes:

• Displays with our protocols and essential agreements for us to go through at the beginning of each engagement
• A weekly blog entry in which the learning to take place is described and linked to the learning objectives.
• A week overview, so that students know what type of engagements they will have throughout the week and they have the opportunity to design their personal schedule.
• A weekly poll in which students share feedback on what is working for them because we design learning considering what is best for them.
• Links to support-documents for the tasks they have to do on that week: webinars, podcasts, demonstrations (for science).
• A communication forum where they would ask questions. The principle behind this is that all students may benefit from questions and answers and like this, we reduce email notifications greatly.

Therefore, we conducted a simple survey in which students provided feedback about their experience in the learning platform we devised. Below are the questions we asked students to provide feedback for:
The layout of the subject page was organized and easy to follow.
The instructions in each weekly post were clearly written and easy to follow.
The weekly instructions on the blog informed me about the learning and work expectations for the week.
The weekly post included explicit links to different assessment criteria and strands.
The weekly blog post included resources to support my home learning.

The feedback students provided confirmed that we were making effective decisions, and that beginning our journey avoiding recreating the physical classroom in a virtual space and delivering learning through several platforms (managebac for this, X for that, Y for that). In the middle of our third week, our focus is fully on well-being and enrichment of learning experiences.

I cannot feel grateful for my learning community at present, because the reflections we are having are about learning, about how we are (and we really mean it), and about how we can be better. How lucky I am to have this state of mind, and to share this mindset.

We will keep students at the center no matter what!

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An Inquiry into Opportunity

Screenshot 2020-04-05 at 2.32.35 PM

Screenshot of Dr. Grace Augustine in Avatar (James Cameron 2009)

Educators that have worked/collaborated with me may remember the frequent reference I make to Sigourney Weaver in the film Avatar (James Cameron, 2009) in which she plays Dr. Grace Augustine, an exobiologist and head of the Avatar Program. Despite the fact that she was badly hurt and was about to die, she took her oxygen mask only to remind her teammates to take samples.

My experience as an educator who designs inquiries for his students has turned me into an inquirer at heart. I do not take part in initiatives or strategies without reflecting on the purpose of what I do, without thinking of the questions I need answers for, and how I will use the learning in any experience once it comes to a conclusion. Needless to say, I am in a permanent “sample collection” mindset throughout the process.

Two weeks of remote learning have passed, and I cannot help but feel grateful for the collaboration I am having with my team. The agreements, norms, and features of the virtual learning experience we agreed on before we started teaching from home allows us to connect and keep learning, well-being, and self-actualization at the core of our reflections.

So, what are the “samples” I am collecting at present? What is the purpose of collecting these samples? What opportunities am I seeing in the systems we’ve put in place?

J. Rafael Angel Ampers& Consulting

Posted in Collaboration, e-learning, IB MYP, Inquiry, Reflection, Teaching | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Language Educators Summit

Screenshot 2020-04-10 at 11.51.25 AM

On April 4 and 5 2020, I had the pleasure of connecting with language educators from countries in different corners of the world. The objective of our collaboration was to

  • reflect on how we can enrich the virtual learning experience to avoid replicating the physical classroom.
  • inquire into the type of engagements that can empower us to design creative and engaging learning experiences, and to collect evidence of learning.
  • share strategies on the use of a variety of multimodal texts in order to generate a stress-free learning experience considering how much time it takes students at different language levels to write and write.

The summit was delivered through an approach that modeled a language class in a virtual environment and educators became aware of the way a minimalist approach can amplify the language learning experience. The session was not recorded, but the strategies discussed and examples of what they look like are below.

I would like to thank the educators who participated in this summit for sharing their reflections, for being courageous to act as students, and most importantly for caring because we all agreed that:

Language learning is an experience.
We communicate what we care about.
It’s personal.

These are the strategies that we explored, and then some:

Participating in the construction of a multimodal text:



Modified Circle of Perspectives



Using song lyrics as reading engagements


Modified information gap activity


Crafting interactive opportunities

Instructions in Spanish

Instructions in English

Exploring data interpretation as  a reading strategy:


Link to teachers’ interaction on padlet

Teachers’ reflections on flipgrid:


Posted in Approaches to teaching, Concept-Based Foreign Language Instruction, Concept-Based Teaching and Learning, Multimodal texts | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment

Designing learning tools sustainably

All educators around the world are in a beautiful state of creation at present.

Many educators are producing exceptional resources to ensure that learning continues to be meaningful and impactful. For this reason, I think it is important to think sustainably as we design resources and to avoid creating resources that will only be used “to cover for the time we are not in front of students”.

We should avoid designing resources to substitute our presence and engagement with students.  It is just fair that the time we invest in designing tools eventually translates into an amplified toolbox of resources that we can remix, re-use, repurpose, extend, and improve.

Many of us are wondering what will the first days of school be like when we return. I am hoping that we are just content to be back and reconnect with our community. But I honestly hope that we go back and joyously celebrate the talent and creativity we used to design learning and that we spend some time looking at the amount of new teaching and learning tools that we have created because these resources and our upgraded approaches to teaching are what will make teaching and learning not to be the same again.

My team and I have been reflecting on the mindset we should adopt as we create resources, and about the different modes in which we can present information so that not everything is text. We have recognized that designing resources considering multimodal aspects of language will help us produce resources that will not be like a wedding dress: a one-function only item.

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If you like this visual, you can download it here: Multimodal Communication

Posted in Approaches to teaching, Collaboration, Concept-Based Teaching and Learning, IB MYP, Resources | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment

Demonstrating ATL Skills as Educators

I agree with those educators that say that “The Coronavirus is NOT the best thing that has happened to education”. But I do appreciate the opportunity this current situation has given me to reflect on the way I design engagements with my teammates, as well as on what “sustainable approaches to collaboration” mean.

Not only should the adaptation process we’re undergoing at the moment lead us to make choices based on priority, but also on humanity because the only things that we have removed from the teaching and learning process are the physical building of our offices and classrooms. The most essential values and principles we hold dear as educators are still present in those virtual hugs we share when we connect and hear the voices of friends and colleagues.

I do not want to be the coordinator who did not take care of the teachers’ well-being; I do not want to be the educator who did not offer his skills to help others; I do not want to be the colleague that thought selfishly and did not act with a solution-oriented and kind spirit because “there were too many things to take care of”.

I am enjoying my current role as a “synthesizer”, reading about what is working for my PLN and their students, as well as the challenges they are facing. This role has allowed me to remix ideas and “toolify” them to serve a purpose in my context and to contribute by offering my ideas and help to others who find in the same situation as me.

Today was our second day of online teaching and learning.  Also, today was the first time that I connected with my team in an “official meeting.” Prior to the engagement, I kept thinking about how much time I was going to take from them, as they also have to collaborate with their teams, prepare the tools they will use for their future lessons, and support their family members.

The visual below summarizes the decisions I made for my first official meeting with my team. While it’s not revealing life-changing ideas, it serves as a good reminder to avoid “stealing” my peers’ time in a moment where this concept has to be divided into making choices to stay healthy and care for others, design learning, teach, engage, connect, reflect… and LIVE, even if our life is suddenly limited to the space at the center of some walls.

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If you like this visual, you can download it in PDF here: ATL as Educators

Posted in Approaches to teaching, Collaboration, e-learning, IB DP, IB MYP, IB PYP, Planning, Reflection | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

A Stress-Free Virtual Environment

By the time I post this blog entry, a lot of learners and educators in Asia will have been learning online for several weeks. As I write this blog entry, I am waiting at the reception of the virtual space that will host learning and collaboration for my colleagues and me. Likewise, by the time I post this entry, I will continue to recognize the value of my PLN, who welcomed me as a thinking partner through their progress and, sincerely, gave me the chance to be strategic in the collective learning experience I start today.

As the time for my team at my current school and I to make decisions approached, wise words of fellow educators in Asia were ever-present in my head:

“Small is beautiful”

“Organization, Responsibility, Expectations, Objective”

“Do not replicate ‘the classroom’ into this environment’”

“Remember the variables for the new context”

“Imagine every possible invisible unforeseen challenge”

However, when the time for us to take action arrived, the words of my former team of Montessorians helped me shape a purposeful and meaningful virtual learning environment. Montessorians (and many non-Montessorians) live by two basic tenets:

“The learning environment should be ready, inviting, and purposeful” and

“Follow the Child”

And these two beliefs made me wondered about the looks of ta virtual space that hosted a pathway that would allow the child not to get lost so that I could follow them and meet them at the stage of their learning in which they were. These two ideas also made me reflect on the design of the learning environment that would not inflict unnecessary stress and confusion for both teachers, students… and parents.

At my current school, we use Schoolbox as our learning platform, so we made decisions around the skills and knowledge our community already had in order to amplify them and agreed on 4 basic learning zones in the landing page for every subject: A blog, where we would write weekly entries; visuals about our learning culture; a communication forum; and additional resources.

Nonetheless, what I value about my team members is how each of us wholeheartedly volunteered to develop harmonized resources that we all could use to diminish the workload and to empower everyone to be ready for teaching and learning.

Below are two images that capture the layout of our platform, and a link to download the learning environment posters, for those who would like to use them.

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Before we launched our remote learning strategy, at my current school, we had a reflection session in which we agreed on the layout of the virtual classroom and what should go where because
  • we wanted it to look like a classroom whose corners or sides reflected a purpose)
  • we wanted students to learn to navigate only one virtual space
  • we wanted to keep track of the assessment criterion-strands (standards) we were addressing because we would be in learning portfolio mode.
Therefore the pages for all MYP and DP subject showcase:
  • Displays with our protocols and essential agreements that we go through at the beginning of each engagement
  • A weekly blog entry in which the learning to take place is described and linked to the learning objectives and assessment strands.
  • A week overview, so that students know what type of engagements they will have throughout the week and they have the opportunity to design their personal schedule
  • A weekly poll in which students share feedback on what is working for them because we design learning considering what is best for them.
  • Links to support-documents for the tasks they have to do on that week: webinars, podcasts, demonstrations (for science).
  • A communication forum where they would ask questions. The principle behind this is that all students may benefit from questions and answers and like this, we reduce email notifications greatly.

e-Learning Environment Posters

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8Hr+ of Reflection about the MYP Evaluation Process

Screenshot 2019-11-23 at 5.27.20 PM

In my last school in China, I had the opportunity to lead the orchestration of two important processes: CIS accreditation, and MYP Evaluation. Having participated in evaluation processes as a teacher and head of department, I had notions of what was needed in order to experience ownership of the outcomes and to begin to imagine future pathways.

In order not to forget ideas, challenges, and reflections during my preparation for these two experiences, I wrote two blog posts, one about the meaning of the journey and its different stages, and another about the school climate, the roles, and the reflection process. As I commence to collaborate with my fellow program coordinators in my current school to design the pathways for evaluation, I am reminded of the 8Hrs+ reflection I experienced upon reading Dr. Aloha Lavina’s ‘The 8-hour Action Plan’, and how the system(s) she proposes encouraged me to reflect on the effectiveness of the ones I put in place in my former school.

Screenshot 2019-11-23 at 5.31.23 PMDr. Lavina’s work keeps my thinking focused on four main dimensions: roles, space, strategies, and time; how I navigate each of them as a coordinator, and how I ought to address each them, considering my teammates as essential cogs in the overall system. I have attempted to illustrate how Dr. Lavina’s expertise causes me to put myself in the shoes of an orchestra director and think of ways in which I will make every member of the orchestra understand that while each produces a very specific sound, the melody we all produce should unite the best of each of us, should synthesize our essences, and be one.

Screenshot 2019-11-23 at 5.27.28 PMScreenshot 2019-11-23 at 5.27.38 PMScreenshot 2019-11-23 at 5.27.45 PM

As I think about different ways to harmonize understandings when designing evaluation pathways, I cannot think but think of the way farmers work the land, how they keep track of the weather to decide when the best time to begin is, to assess their readiness, and to commit to the relationship they will have with the plants that will be growing. Farmers do not plant seeds without keeping the harvesting time in mind, and they understand that the people they were when they began the planting process will not be the same compared to who they will be when they harvest the land and prepare for the next cycle.

Dr. Lavina’s The 8-hour Action plan has helped me enrich and strengthen the systems I have previously used as a coordinator, and has reaffirmed the importance of not underestimating the socio-emotional aspects of the process, in which the evaluation of our work and aspirations is the drive that will keep us going.

I look forward to the reflections I will be writing once the pathways for my current school are designed and ready to be walked.

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Removing Barriers in the Language Classroom


A recent conversation about inclusion, made me reflect on how, rather than differentiating to support learning, I am removing the barriers for learning in the decisions I make as a teacher. Differentiated teaching was not invented last year. Not only is it a practice that reveals the observant and caring attributes of a teacher, but also a behavior that demonstrates how the teacher handles and manages the knowledge and skills in his subject. I remember what one colleague of mine once said to me: not knowing how to generate flexible learning scenarios for developing a specific understanding is living your teaching life in a tunnel-vision-like manner.

One thing is true about inclusion: it will never be impactful and meaningful if we do not know our students; if we do not know their challenges; what makes them lose focus; what processes stimulate them; and if we do not know the kind of chemistry that will result from having student A working with student B in comparison to having student B working with student C.

Comprehensible input in the classroom occurs through various means, and from different sources: the teacher, other students, a video, a book, and audio, among others. These different sources of input already give us an idea of possible systems we can put in place to support students’ learning.

I wonder if

– You have tried recording instructions or the steps of a guided task for those students that have strong reception skills but struggle processing.
– When working in teams, you have asked students to take turns to read out loud, for the students whose listening skills are stronger than their reading skills.
– If you have modified readings by changing the order of information, adding pictures, including diagrams, mini-tasks or tables, to help students read in steps without missing out on the big understandings in the text.

Metaphorically speaking, if some cultures use spoons, others chopsticks, and others their hands, why should we assume that all learners will be happy eating with a fork?

Nonetheless, many times differentiation is mostly needed when we want students to engage with information and produce something; when we want to observe their output. So let me share ideas that have worked for me when working on ‘products’, keeping in mind the process at all times.

You can see an example of this modification here:

Original Text | Modified Text

Let’s classify texts in four categories:
– Instructive.
– Persuasive.
– Informative.
– Descriptive.

Now let’s wonder:

  • What kind of texts do I normally ask my students to write?
  • What is the most appropriate text for each of the big conceptual understandings in my subject for which I would ask students to write?
  • What kind of skills are involved in each kind of text? Have I taught them?
  • What are the elements that help us create meaning in each text type? (diagrams, tables, figures, etc)
  • In which type of media would each category of text appear?
  • Is that a type of media that I ask students to read? (To make sure we have given them an example/pattern to follow)
  • What kind of language is needed to produce each type of paper?
  • What challenges do the conventions of each text type represent for students?

Clearly, if we are aware of the kind of language and skills needed to produce a certain kind of paper, we will know which one to assign to each kind of student. Different kinds of paper allow us to convey the same meaning.

Let’s classify oral activities in five categories:
– One-on-One Speaking (Student-Student or Student-Teacher.
– Small-Group or Team-Based Oral Work.
– Full-Class Discussions (Teacher- or Student-Led).
– In-Class Debates and Deliberations.
– Speeches and Presentations

Now let’s wonder:

  • How can each type of oral activity help students specific practice vocabulary, skills, and address concepts to develop new understandings depending on their needs?
  • How can different contexts, topics or expected communicative outcomes help us ‘manipulate’ each category?
  • What kind of language and skills that are essential in my subject can each category help me address?

When it comes down to collaboration, there is an endless list of strategies for collaboration that can be used to differentiate learning. From pair work to small group work, and whole-class; to interactions whose layers help students learn at their own pace. However, I have had very interesting successes with the following routine in the language class, as I have students work in groups according to their level. Students engage in activities whose outcome will be used by the other groups.

A sample table that maps how I run the routine is shown below (Example of a Language Acquisition class).
Multilateral collaboration

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We teach students to write cohesively and produce pieces of written work that ‘feel’ like one unified piece. Do our units feel like that? Or are they more like a collection of random, disengaged items that help students explore facts, and practice basic skills, but do not enable them to make connections or give them the opportunity to take learning (despite their level) to a different plateau?

After years of collaboration with brilliant teachers and creative minds, I have become fond of the idea that teaching that is absent of differentiation is careless, and learning that is absent from inquiry and personalized opportunities is thoughtless.

For me, the most valuable aspect of differentiation is that differentiated teaching allows us to collect an incredibly diverse kind of data about the way learning is happening, and this is a gift we should not jeopardize with. At the end of the day, our planning and teaching should be informed by evidence of learning, and only by seeing different scenarios and what happens in each will we know how effective our teaching is.

To end this post, I would like to share some accommodations that I have made with struggling learners and to challenge advanced learners.

Scaffolding for Struggling Learners

■ Reteaching with a different method: I made sure I had an audio file in case I wanted to re-enter the process through listening; if using a text; I made sure I had a version whose sections had a task each and, hence, contributed to help students connect ideas; I also had images and graphic organizers ready to be used in case students needed to look at information differently.
■ I asked one of my students to be a reading partner if needed. Since reading aloud also helps him focus, this was a win-win situation- This provided peer support for collaborative learning.
■ Throughout the unit, I asked students to take notes in different formats. I knew exactly how new information was going to be useful in future tasks, so by taking notes in one way, students were generating tools for the future- their notes became classroom resources to complete future tasks.
■ I made sure there was a model or exemplar that allowed students to see a pattern, which they could replicate.
■ Breaking down the task in order to furnish step-by-step directions was also part of my repertoire. This helped students wrap up learning cycles and be able to continue with what was not finished.
■ I made sure I included hint bubbles to information or past lessons that could support their work.
■ I color-coded different elements; highlighting specific focusing; including mini-processes that helped students process information more rapidly without noticing.
■ Provided sentence strips or sticky labels with useful, categorized terms, or manipulatives that could help students visualize possible formulas or combinations.
■ Although this was not one of my favorites, a couple of times this strategy did rescue students from not being engaged: a partially completed graphic organizer or outline.
■ Since we had a growth mindset that students used as a learning path, out-of-sequence steps were provided for students to sequence their thinking and also to check their work.
■ Since I had recorded a text on some occasions, I transformed the text/script into a cloze (fill-in-the-blank) series of paragraphs for students whose language is extremely limited (I think this could also work for those who struggle with graphomotor skills).
■ For encouraging rich ideas in the writing process, I gave a framed format with ‘checkpoints’ or ‘standards’ to help students organize their writing and use a variety of language and ideas. These served as labels for students to simply place information appropriately.
■ I prepared slips of paper with guiding questions for work at different stages or in different sections of a long task.
■ Established a direct connection to assessment criteria, supply a word bank that students could use to be successful.

Challenging Advanced Learners
■ I designed activities in various formats: more complex, abstract, independent, and/or multistep. This also encouraged me to ask students to choose the challenge for the day.
■ I had a series of extension questions as a challenge or task that requires them to think beyond the concrete and obvious to more abstract ideas and new use of the information. This represented an opportunity to practice transfer to and from other areas of knowledge/subjects.
■ I included more detailed question items, asking for more complex expression of ideas: different types of sentences, more than two adjectives or type of verb (action or stative) to describe what’s happening. Students are used to generative grammar patterns, so they knew what challenge each pattern represented.

■ I encouraged them to use metaphors and/or similes, idiomatic expressions, or specific literary elements to be included in their writing, instead of responding in what would be a more natural answer.
■ I asked students to note relationships and point out connections among ideas: compare and contrast; cause and effect; problem and solution; sequence; advantages and disadvantages; benefits; past lessons; information covered in other subjects, etc.
■ I used the visible thinking routine ‘circles of perspectives, in order to have students tell the story or ask questions (and interact) from a different point of view.
■ I asked students to practice empathy and place themselves into the story or time period and write from the first-person point of view, choosing one character that is the least similar to them (when there are multiple characters).
■ I encouraged students to consider and prepare “What if?” scenarios and exchange them with other (advanced) students.
■ My favorite strategy was providing a problem or model that did not work so that students could solve it.
■ Presented different choices of work for students to choose from. These options had to do with using information in a completely new way (Design an awareness campaign about … ; Create a flier to inform …; Write/give a speech to convince …; Write an article to educate …; Write an ad to warn others about …; Design a program to solve the problem of …. )
■ And finally, this is something I never truly had the chance to do, as I think this was the ultimate challenge for my most advanced students in this class: asking students to suggest tips or hints that would help others who struggle to make sense of the information.

Other posts I have written on differentiation:
The things I think about when I differentiate
Entering the differentiated world

I would like Language eductors to check the work of Deborah Blaz, which focuses on language acquisition and provides extraordinary and practical advice on how to remove the barriers for learning in the language class.



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